Menopause Vitamins

vitamins for menopauseReaching `middle age` is a special time in a womans life, but unfortunately not always an easy one!  By the time most women reach 50 they find themselves with an unfamiliar body that behaves in a totally alien way and over which they have little control. That`s why specific menopause vitamins are so important as a natural menopause remedy.

Why Are Vitamins So Important?

As we all know, it is vitally important that we get the correct amount of vitamins, minerals and nutrients to enable our bodies to function at its peak.  Especially as we age and our body needs a little extra help, But what happens, during those times when this just is not possible? Perhaps during illness, or when women want to alleviate menopausal symptoms.

Which Ones Are The Right Ones?

Vitamin tablets have always been popular to `top up` our daily amount and to ensure that we receive adequate quantities. But how much do we actually know about these formulations and how do we go about selecting the right menopause vitamins for our needs?

If you believe that the one-a-day vitamin pill can provide you with all the nutrients your body needs, then think again. Trying to include all the nutrients and vitamins in one tablet, would make it impossibly large. There is a limit to how much can be put in one capsule before it gets as big as a ball.  So if a brand of multi vitamins claims to be the best in the world, but are the one-a-day type, it`s probably best to keep your distance.

Interestingly, one of the most popular one-a-day formulas for menopausal vitamins, contains only 30 IU’s (int’l units) of vitamin E, and only 150 mg. calcium.  It’s an acknowledged fact that, perimenopausal women require 1250 mg. of calcium per day and postmenopausal women 1500 mg. daily, to keep their bones strong.  In addition, folic acid is essential for heart health and so any formula not containing at least 400 mcg. is certainly not ideal.

Getting The Right Balance

An important point to remember, is that menopause vitamins, minerals and other nutrients work synergistically, vitamins for menopausemeaning that other nutrients are required to enable any of the vitamins to perform at their best.  For example, calcium needs vitamin D to be absorbed and vitamin E must have zinc.  So it is worth doing your homework to find out which vitamins require `support` to do their work.

The ingredients used in multi vitamins also vary in their potency, from brand to brand.  And with the makers of these formulas being unregulated and some of the cheaper types containing fillers and other useless ingredients, how on earth are women supposed to know which is the best for us?

`Natural` Isn`t Always  Best

The trick is to educate yourself.  Find out as much information as you can about menopause vitamins and minerals before using anything.  Try different combinations until you find the right one.  If you’re using any prescription or over the counter medication(s), before adding extra vitamins to your diet, it’s important to check with your healthcare professional to be sure there is no chance of one counter acting the other.  Just because it may say “natural” on the label, doesn’t mean it can’t cause toxicity or other health issues.

Menopause Signs

signs of menopauseFor most women under the age of 45, the menopause or “the change”, has little importance.  But as the years pass and you find yourself nudging 50 you are faced with the inevitable transition that we all eventually go through and notice the arrival of the ominous menopause signs.

This is the time when information and options become vital to your success in making the journey progress as smoothly as possible.  Yet how much do we actually know about menopause and the effect that it has on our bodies?

The Usual Age For Menopause

For most women, menopause begins around the age of 51 (give or take a few years). When a woman under 45 goes through it, it`s called premature menopause.  This is very rare and only happens to one percent of women under the age of 40.  Although women who smoke have an earlier menopause than non-smokers, they also have worse hot flashes. It’s never too late to stop smoking.

As a woman ages, the level of the hormone estrogen – which regulates our monthly period – drops and we begin to notice the menopause signs and symptoms.

Some Menopause Signs:

  •     Experiencing having hot flashes and becoming hot while you are asleep
  •     Intercourse is painful
  •     Libido has dropped
  •     Have vaginal and/or bladder infections
  •     Small amounts of urine leak when laughing or sneezing
  •     Difficulty getting to sleep and constantly waking up
  •     Being frequently tired and weary
  •     Difficulty concentrating
  •     Having more gas
  •     Forgetting things
  •     Skin is drier and less firm and sometimes itchy
  •       Weight gain
  •      Muscle or joint ache

Post Menopause

Overtime, periods will become less frequent, until they stop altogether. Once a year has passed with no period, the woman is described as post menopausal.  However, it is still possible to become pregnant for up to two years after the last period if under 50, and for one year over 50.  So it is important to continue with contraception until this time has passed.

Symptoms Of Menopause

Menopause signs and symptoms include, bloating, difficulty sleeping, hot flashes, mood swings, weight gain, menopause signsdepression and vaginal dryness.  But there are many, many ways that a woman can help herself alleviate, if not cure some or all of her symptoms.

Take Care Of Yourself

Healthy eating, regular exercise, limited caffeine and alcohol, will help women cope with changes and improve their general health and well being.  Include unrefined food wherever possible rather than convenience foods and sugary snacks.

Many of our diets may be deficient in some minerals and vitamins, vegetarians for instance may be lacking in the B group of vitamins.  Speak with a nutritionist if you think that you may be lacking and either include a wider variety of foods in your diet or perhaps take a vitamin supplement to make up the shortfall.

Menopause is a time of many changes for a woman and with the erratic levels of hormones, it may be that she finds herself subject to rapid mood changes and perhaps even times of depression.  It is important that any woman who is struggling to cope with the menopause signs and symptoms, seek professional help.

A New Stage 

signs of menopauseBy looking upon menopause as a time of freedom from menopausal cramps, monthly periods and birth control, women will begin to see this as a positive change.  The progression signals a whole new chapter in the life of a mature woman and one that will be happier if she embraces it without fear or regret.

Surround yourself with people who will support you when you need it and cheer you if you feel teary….and you will find the entire experience a whole lot easier.

For more on menopause signs, watch this video.

 

Other Articles You May find Interesting

chronic back pain

Tips For Fighting Back Pain

heart checks

Heart Tests For Health

Product Reviews

I really hate wasting my hard earned cash on things that don`t live up to their claims and that is why I`ve included a Product Review page and given each item a star rating out of 5.

If any of you ladies have used a product that you would like to recommend, or tell the rest of us about one that1s a waste of money –  let me know and I`ll pass it on to everyone else.

 

 

<<– Check Out UK Product Reviews Here –>>

 

Skin Doctors

menopause skin

Product Description:

Skin resurfacing without lasers or peels

Enriched with fruit acids to regenerate skin renewal

Improves blemishes, acne scarring, reduces blackheads and whiteheads

Decongests blocked pores

menopausal skin

Overview:

Skin Doctors` primary function is to gently resurface your skin and it works like an exfoliator, although, unlike exfoliators, you don’t wash off the product. Instead you leave it on all day, then in the evening you cleanse your face again and reapply for the night.You use it daily instead of, or underneath your regular moisturiser and it can help with reducing the appearance of acne scarring and skin blemishes as well as smoothing wrinkles and reducing signs of aging and pore size. You can carry on using it for as long as you wish.

Skin Doctors: What We Like

  • It isn`t tested on animals
  • Skin Doctors isn`t too greasy, sinks into the skin quite quickly and is great for acne scarring and pitted skin.
  • It comes packaged in quite a heavy, chunky, clear glass pot with a silver screw top lid and it looks really classy
  • A little goes a long way

Skin Doctors: What We Don`t Like

  • It`s at the higher end of the price scale, but a little does go a long way and so should last for months.
  • It smells slightly of some sort of chemical, but it`s not unpleasant
  • The instructions recommend you limit your exposure to the sun while using the cream. Particularly, when you’re out in the sun, always wear a sunscreen with at least an SPF of 15 as Gamma Hydroxy doesn’t contain an SPF.

Conclusion:

“We weren`t too sure about this at first as `skin resurfacing` sounded painful, but the promise of a younger looking skin was just too good an offer to refuse. The texture was quite light and a little did go a long way. Apart from one lady who suffered a mild reaction, all the testers really liked it.

Apparently it sloughs off all of the dull and dead skin cells that sit on the surface, exposing the nice, new shiny skin. And it`s true, the skin feels softer and smoother to the touch – and we`re convinced that we look younger. But we should have really taken `before` and `after` shots, just to be sure.

Try to find someone who sells trial pots and read plenty of reviews if you`re not sure whether it`s worth spending your money on”

We would love to know what you think. Have you tried Skin Doctors and did you see results? Let us know.

<<– Buy Skin Doctors –>>

Feedback:

A couple of years ago when I began using Gamma Hydroxy, I must admit I didn’t read all the instructions. It was February and I was winter white and due to fly out to New Zealand for a 2 week visit to see relatives. I decided to prepare my skin by undergoing a few sunbed sessions. What I did find, however, was that my face became incredibly brown right away. It was far browner than the rest of my skin and I realised that it was because I was using the Gamma Hydroxy which had obviously heightened my skin’s sensitivity to the sunbed’s rays. I was lucky in that I didn’t burn and would certainly not repeat that process again.

Overall, I’ve found it’s a great product for giving my skin a nice glowing and fresh look and gets rid of that dull greyness that can often occur during winter. I find the pot of cream lasts me around 4-5 months so it’s pretty good value.

Ultraclear

menopause acne Product Description:

A highly potent and powerful acne treatment

Targets, problem skin, severe acne and blackheads

Money back guarantee offered

menopause acneOverview:

If you ever tried the original Ultraclear, you will immediately notice that this version is a little thicker than its predecessor and has quite a strong smell, but used twice daily it does work on most problem skins (especially with the really bad acne).

Ultraclear: What We Like

  • It  moisturises the skin without making it dry and flaky
  • Retailing at under £15,  it`s nicely priced
  • 100% money back guarantee

Ultraclear: What We Don`t Like

  • The packaging looks like a crime scene investigation site, with its stripey design
  • The smell is quite strong

Conclusion:

If you have tried preparations in the past that haven`t worked and your acne is bad, Ultraclear is well worth considering”

<<– BUY UltraclearToday –>>

Feedback:

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Within a couple of weeks my daughters skin was clear, but credit to her she applied it morning and night without fail, we’re almost into February and she still has a third of the tub left, her skin has remained clear and she has no dry skin from using this cream.  There is a 100% money back guarantee with it if you don’t think it’s any good, or it’s not working for you .  We hadn’t tried that many products before but we didn’t need to as this one put simply, works.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I have been using this for about 3 weeks now and will continue to use it because it is working for me, although I may go back to the non extreme cream if my skin continues to improve.

I would suggest you try this for a week to two weeks and see if you get an improvement. If you can, refrain from using any other treatments other than a face wash while you trial this product, as I think if you use benzoyl peroxide or freederm as well, your skin would get very dry.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Chillow Pillow

hot flashes

Cools & Refreshes

Product Description:

Relieves discomfort from overheating

Double sided cooling effect

Allergy Free

Doesn’t need refridgeration

hot flushes

Overview

An ingenious device for cooling down the effect of hot flashes and sweats. It does exactly what it says on the tin – it cools and refreshes  –  utter bliss when you`re roasting hot. At only two centimetres thick, it is lightweight and portable and recommended for people who suffer from hot flashes, fevers, night sweats, headaches, eczema, sunburn, muscle and/or joint pain, sporting injuries and many other conditions. Chillow Pillow is activated only once by simply filling it with water and the water is fully absorbed into the patented foam core. It is a unique  product and once activated it will keep on working, so it’s always ready for use when ever you need it.

Chillow Pillow: What We Like

  • Being double sided you can lay your head on it to cool your beetroot red face down and wrap your arms around it at the same time.
  • It is light, so it can be taken abroad when traveling – great news if your going to a hot country
  • The temperature is pleasantly cool, not freezing cold like some products and it`s always nice and soft

Chillow Pillow: What We Don`t Like

  • Does sometime scrunch up
  • Heats up to body temperature after a few hours
  • Pricewise, it`s not terrifily high, but it costs more than a packet of ice cold peas!

Conclusion:

Some of our testers had tried the original Chillow Pillow, but all said that they prefer this newer version as it is double sided and much thicker. We looked at the cheaper versions but on balance, decided that as the Chillow Pillow is so well made, it will last us for many years and so works out to be more cost effective. Really shines in the short term when you really need a cooling friend, as it does heat up to body temperature over a few hours

<<– Get Chillow Pillow Here –>>

Feedback:

I bought the Chillow plus after having two of the standard Chillows. The standard Chillow constantly twists up and although you can remedy this by removing the cap and blowing air inside the constant twisting in my opinion weakens the seams which then fail and leak. The Chillow plus is about twice as thick and thus far hasn’t twisted any where near as much. As the Chillow plus is thicker it also stays cooler for longer. So for me worth the extra money.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Oh, the discomfort of the hot flush. The heat creeping up from my armpits to the top of my head – or sometimes even appearing out of nowhere like an erupting volcano. And oh, the sheer bliss of wrapping my sweaty arms around a chillow pillow. Imagine stepping into a lovely cool shower when you`ve been sweltering for hours – that`s the way you feel after a couple of minutes with this little life saver.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I was sceptical about this product, especially being so expensive for what appeared to be ‘just a bit of plastic full of water’; however, as I suffer from hot flushes, often waking up with wet hair and pillowcase, and having spent the night flipping my pillow about several times (leading to a less than productive night’s sleep and often with a headache), I went ahead and purchased one and have used it the last 3 nights (during the recent warm spell) – how glad I am that I did.

I’ve used mine on top of my pillow but under my pillowcase and am pleasantly surprised at how cool it is around my head and neck and I went off to sleep very easily (even during a flush!). Mine has not scrunched up, in fact it has not moved from where I put it on the pillow and, although it is surprisingly very warm in the mornings, it has still kept my head cooler than without it. I take it out of the pillowcase in the morning and let it spend the day lying on top of the bed to get the air around it ready for the next night.

I think me and my Chillo are going to be very good friends!

Omega 7

menopause support

Product Information:

May help to maintain natural lubrication during the menopause

Nutritional supplement prepared from berries

Suitable for vegetarians

menopause help

Overview:

Pharma Nord Omega 7 (Sea Buckthorne Oil) capsules are widely recognised as being one of the best supplements for supporting women who are going through menopause. Particularly excellent for vaginal dryness, dry eye and skin relief.

Omega 7: What We Like

  • Easy to swallow and doesn`t leave an unpleasant after taste
  • Suitable for vegetarians as there is no gelatin in the capsules
  • Really great for dry skin, eyes and mouth and all other dry areas

Omega 7: What We Don`t Like

  • Pricewise, it`s at the higher end of the  scale, working out around 20p per capsule

Conclusion:

There seems to be a general menopause supplement on every shelf and it`s sometimes tempting just to go for the cheapest and although Omega 7 is at the higher end of the price scale, everyone LOVED this product. If you are suffering with personal dryness, this one is worth paying the bit extra for.

<<– Get Best Price On Omega 7–>>

Feedback:

I tried Omega 7 after seeing an article about its benefits. I suffered particularly with a very dry mouth that left me continually licking my lips and it wasn’t due to any other health issue. The change was almost immediate. Within a couple of days my mouth had returned to normal. I only took the 2 x 2 daily for the first two weeks then reduced to 2 per day after that. This product really does do what it says on the box. A little expensive but worth every penny. As an additional, it has also made a positive difference in the bedroom!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Bought this product and it really does work, after a few days the menopausal symptoms I was experiencing were much less and now, my skin looks great and plumped up, so much so that people have commented on it.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Really delighted, yes its expensive but so are the creams we put on our faces and this works from the inside out. Try it and see!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I recently had to have radiotherapy for breast cancer. I’d been taking Pharma Nord Omega 7 capsules for some time before the treatment started (I have very dry skin, partly due to the oestrogen suppressant drugs I have to take) and I upped the dosage whilst I was actually having the treatment as I’d read somewhere that Russian Cosmonauts used sea buckthorn oil to alleviate radiation burns. If it worked for them, I thought, why not for me? And the result was amazing; all the other women I spoke to had some kind of reaction ranging from mild irritation to real discomfort – but all I had was a rather crispy nipple (!) which cleared up very quickly, and no other side effects whatsoever. So THANK YOU!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 I decided to try it just to see if it might work for me and help alleviate some menopausal symptoms. I have tried a number of natural remedies over the past couple of years and without doubt, I have never taken anything that has made a difference so quickly and so substantially. I noticed a difference within the first week and it keeps improving. It has made a difference to my sleeping pattern and I am definitely feeling less hot than before I started taking it. I see from other reviews that the results haven’t been as successful for everyone, but it works for me and I am hugely impressed!

Promensil

promensil menopause

Red Clover for Menopause Relief

Product Information:

Has been shown in clinical trials to help reduce the frequency and severity of hot flushes and night sweats

The Red Clover isoflavone structure mimics the human body’s natural oestrogen

Interacts with human oestrogen receptors

promensil for menoapause

Overview:

Originally called Novogen Redclover, Promensil is still popular for treating menopausal symptoms and contains isoflavines – which is recommended  for alleviating symptoms caused by oestrogen fluctuations. Promensil has been clinically tested with over 1,000 women, demonstrating that it may reduce the number and severity of hot flushes and studies have also shown bone loss is slowed with the use of 40mg isoflavones.

Promensil: What We Like

  • It does seem to reduce the frequency and the severity of  hot flushes
  • It`s not too badly priced  and works out at around 66p per tablet at the time of writing (just seen the exact same item in Holland and Barrett for £45.00!)

Promensil: What We Don`t Like

  • The manufacturers recommend it be taken for 8 weeks to determine effectiveness. We like results immediately!

Conclusion:

It`s difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff with so many menopausal supplements on the market, but we particularly liked this one.  It`s an excellent choice and particularly good for hot flushes and night sweats, which in turn improves sleep and therefore stress levels. Although ladies who have been using it for many years swear that it also helps improve their hair, skin and nails.

  <<–Buy Promensil Here –>>

Feedback:

I used to get hot flushes quit bad. Through the night I would get flushes ( night sweats) would be so hot I couldn’t sleep properly. After taking red clover for a couple of weeks they went almost completely.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I would recomend this product fully

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Night sweats, hot flushes, you name it I had it – and boy did I feel hot!! I tried a few products out there but none worked and so I thought that I would try something more `natural`. After reading several reviews, I plumped for Promensil and I`m glad to say that slowly, but surely, the occurrences and the severity of my flushes diminished. Nowadays, I may get a little hot around the neck area, but that`s as bad as it gets.

I say, give Promensil a try.

Phyto Soya

lubricant

Product Information:

Original molecular structure that permits hydration and protection

Safe to use for the oestrogen intolerant

Clean and easy to use

personal lubricant

Overview:

During the menopause, hormone secretions decrease, causing loss of moisture and lubrication which canresult in uncomfortable dryness. Phyto Soya Gel  contain soya isoflavones which have a gentle trophic action on the vaginal epithelium, which in turn encourages hydration and protection of the vaginal mucous membrane.

 Phyto Soya: What We Like

  • Lubricates and moisturises quickly and effectively
  • Recommended usage is twice weekly, so no daily application as some of its competitore recommend
  • No distasteful tackiness or unpleasant fragrance and no reported irritation
  • Easy to use – we liked the applicator

Phyto Soya: What We Don`t Like

  • Costs just over £10, which may seem expensive but if you don`t want to use an oestrogen based product, there isn`t a lot of choice

Conclusion:

There are several lubricants on the market and of the ones we tested, this came out on top. Phyto Soya comes complete with its own applicator which makes it easier and more hygienic to use and less messy than some other brands. It offers immediate relief from the discomfort of vaginal dryness and has no fragrance or colour so is virtually undetectable.

<<–Get Phyto Soya Today–>>

Feedback:

I am oestrogen intolerant so all the gels & creams prescribed by my doctor gave me all sorts of side effects. I found these when I was doing my own research on-line. In desperation I decided to give them a chance. I am pleased to say that so far they are doing the job. They cannot be used by anyone who is soya intolerant, but otherwise they are really worth trying. Long term use of oestrogen is not good anyway, so if you’re willing to go down the alternative route these may be for you. Good luck

Ladycare

menopause signs

Discreet Device for Menopause

Product Information:

A small magnetic device that attaches discreetly to underwear

Natural remedy for the alleviation of menopause symptoms

Safe, drug free product designed to help reduce the symptoms of menopause

symptoms of menopause

Overview:

LadyCare is a small powerful, medical device that simply attaches discreetly and comfortably to your underwear, a novel, safe, drug free product designed to help reduce the symptoms of menopause. Based on the principal of magnetic therapy.

Ladycare: What We Like

  • Very easy to wear and not noticeable
  • Really does seem to improve mood swings
  • Natural product if you don`t want to take supplements

Ladycare: What We Don`t Like

  • Price. At just over £20 it`s reasonably priced if it works, but a waste of money if it doesn`t
  • The manufacturers don`t offer a money back guarantee

Conclusion:

I had heard great reports on this product and couldn`t wait to try it, so was a little disappointed to hear of the mixed reviews it received. On a good note, it was easy to fit, comfortable and unobtrusive and the testers who liked it, said that hot flushes disappeared, moods were improved and they felt less bloated.Unfortunately, others reported no improvements whatsoever – in fact no changes at all.Perhaps a longer testing period would show better results, but at the moment, the jury`s out on Ladycare. If you want to check out the Ladycare forum, here is the link: Ladycare

 We would love to hear from anyone else who tries it and discover if our findings are the same as yours.

<<–BUY Ladycare–>>

Feedback:

I have been wearing the Lady Care magnet for 3 months and I feel great, before using the magnet I was having hot sweats at night and was unable to sleep. But is has all stopped now and I am sleeping so much better. I have had no side effects for this magnet and just feel great.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I had had enough of sweating,aching,lack of sleep etc and was starting 2 regret having my hysterectomy…until i went and spoke 2 the chemist in Boots who advised me about this little magnet.My partner looked on in amusement as i paid but 24 hrs later he is amazed at the change in me….all i can say is, give it a try.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I would like to add, I have used Ladycare now for many years and also found that when I first started using it I noticed an increase of my symptoms, I called the helpline and was advised to continue use for short periods of time for a couple of weeks, within about a week I then noticed my symptoms were reducing dramatically, I still use ladycare to this day and have told many friends that are all singing the praises of this magic device. Dont give up trying I am sure you will be more than happy given time.